Wednesday, 17 April 2013
Saturday, 5 January 2008
Computers simply mean a machine which can compute. Let us peek into the past and find out who were the geeks who thought about having a device that could perform calculative tasks by recognizing inputs and giving the appropriate outputs.
Abacus developed in 3000 BC can be called the first ever computer as it was a simple counting device. In 1941 a German engineer Konard Zuse developed a first programmable calculator using binary math and Boolean logic. UNIVAC was developed in 1951 and the real breakthrough came in 1952 when Texas Instrument developed the Integrated Circuit. In 1964, IBM introduced a mainframe computer called IBM 360. Apple introduced Apple I in 1976 and Apple II in 1977. The Computer that is familiar to most of us in terms of looks and functionality was unveiled in 1981 when IBM introduced the Personal Computer.
The main characteristics of a Computer are:
1 - It follows and is capable of following a special set of instructions.
2 - It can execute preset list of instructions generally known as a computer program.
The basic components which are essential to make a computer are:
1 - Input Device comprising of a Keyboard and Mouse which are used for entering instructions and data into the computer.
2 - Output device such as the Visual Display Unit or the Screen, Printer etc, which lets us see what the computer has done.
3 - The Central Processing Unit which is known as the brain of the Computer where all the processing of data is done and instructions are executed.
4 - Memory is the powerhouse of the computer which stores data and instructions in it.
5 - Mass Storage Devices are those which permanently stores and retain large amount of data. The common ones are floppy drives, CD-ROMs, Hard disks etc.
Computers come in various types designed for various purposes keeping in mind different categories of its users. According to their type they have different capabilities and are priced accordingly. The most popular computer is the Personal Computer which is for personal use of a single user at one time. They come in two types; A Desktop and a Laptop. Then there is an even smaller computer known as the Palmtop which can be held in the palms of the user. While these are the smaller and personal types of computers, The Mainframe, Workstation and Supercomputers are the larger high end computers used by big organizations.
Computers can perform a wide range of functions such as word processing, Digital Audio/Video composition, Internet, Communications and Networking and Desktop Publishing. Computers word processing capability includes automatic correction of spelling and grammar mistakes. Internet is one of the greatest inventions of human beings. It connects infinite number of computers in the manner of a web.
Ungodly amounts of information are available on the Internet and facilities of communications such as messaging, audio and video conferencing are available for free. Graphic engineers are using computers for editing audio and video compositions. No media production can be completed without the help of computers. Nowadays Computers are indispensable for Banking, Railway and Flight Reservations, Education and even defense of a country. There is hardly any sector of business which does not utilize Computers. Important and critical business tasks cannot be accomplished without the help of computers.
Just like human beings, computers are also prone to diseases which are created by attack of viruses. Proper back up of all data stored in computer must be maintained to provide back up in case of storage media failure. Computers must be secured from unauthorized use by passwords and must be protected from viruses by installing anti-virus programs in them. Computers, if safeguarded and used properly can create wonders for human kind and can produce results which are unachievable without them.
Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/hardware-articles/computer-the-need-of-modern-life-288052.html
About the Author:
This article can also be accessed in portuguese language from the Article section of page www.polomercantil.com.br/computador-pc.phpRoberto Sedycias works as IT consultant for http://www.polomercantil.com.br/
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When you first build a web site you need to show the search engines that your site is popular, and that other web site owners want to link to you. It is really hard to get webmasters to put a link to you without wanting something in return. Therefore we exchange reciprocal links. The webmaster puts a link to my page on his and vice versa.
However these reciprocal links are not always what they seem to be. Here is a list of evil tricks that webmaster use to avoid actually putting your link on their page.
Delay Tactics - You arrange to exchange a reciprocal link and the other webmaster seems to never get around to putting your link on their site. Therefore until he does, he is enjoying the benefits of a one way backlink. I f this happens you should remove their link.
Bury Links in Categories and Sections - I have been to sites where my link is listed in a category where you have to do 5 to 10 clicks just to find it. Are you kidding me!!! I found one link in Computers>Tutorials>Basic>Windows>Free>Free computer help. Nevertheless it is a link, however I do not do my reciprocal links like that. I put them 2-3 click from My home page.
Anchor text is not used correctly - You usually have your keyword as a anchor text that links to your site. However when an evil webmaster places your anchor link on their page, it points to another landing page before going to your site.
For example I use Free Computer Help as anchor text. If a web site has this link, a visitor presses it, goes to another page mentioning my site with the clickable text now being 'click here to visit', my anchor text is worthless!!!
Mention their Links Page in their robot.txt file - There are some sneaky ways to tell the search engines to not crawl certain pages on your web site. The webmaster may just write it blatantly in their robot.txt file to disallow the links page. They may also disguise the way they disallow it by putting it in another directory or folder and disallowing that .
The Reciprocal link appears to be a link until you click on it - This is why you must check your reciprocal links. I hate it when this happens and the webmaster says they had no idea this has happened... Yeah Right!!! They are so dumb, that they created a webpage, got ranked in the search engines, and probably made money from your stupidity.
A Mouse over of the reciprocal link shows my URL - Who cares if a mouse over shows your link.. When you press the link, does it actually go to your site??
Page Rank Deception - When you exchange a reciprocal link and their page rank may be for their homepage only. When you are on their links page the page rank may be lower.
Your reciprocal link is removed a few months later - If you are not constantly checking on your reciprocal links, webmasters take advantage of this and discretely remove your link, therefore turning their link on your page into a one way backlink to them. OOOOO Very Sneaky!!!
You can't even get to the links page from anywhere on their site - They have sent you the page where your link has been placed, and it is there, however when navigating from their home page, there is no way to get to your link... This is an obvious deception and you should forget about exchanging anything with this webmaster.
The add a NOfollow attribute to your link - This is a new way of putting a link on a site, all works fine, however when it says to nofollow, the search engines ignore it. I have recently found a few sites to be doing this. They have all had a ranking of around 5. No wonder, because all the reciprocal links are now counted as one way backlink. Here is an example of a Nofollow attribute with the:
href="http://www.tips4pc.com" rel="nofollow">Free Computer Help
Tips For Webmasters when exchanging reciprocal links
- If you cannot personally check the reciprocal link then it is not worth it.. You need to go to the exact page and click on the link to see where it goes and what is does.
- Check The content of the Website you want to exchange a reciprocal link with. Make sure it gives its visitors a sense of value and has original content. It is no good referring your visitors to a worthless web site that is out to do nothing but scam people out of their money.
- Don't worry about page rank when choosing a reciprocal link partner. I have chosen some with a Page rank of 0 that later ended up with a Page Rank of 5 or more. Every Web site starts at the bottom of the Page Rank system. But you have to start somewhere. And I say badluck to those sites that did not link to you when you had a page rank of 0. Because one day that very site may pass them in the ranking.
- Make sure the web site you intend to exchange reciprocal links with has relevant content for your users. For example if I exchange reciprocal links with another great computer help site it will benefit both web sites as the visitor is sure to find what they want on either of the sites.
- Reciprocal links are being abused by so many webmasters now days, to such an extent, that soon they will mean nothing at all to the search engines. Remember when the same thing happened to meta tags. Everyone was writing meta tags that attracted the most hits from the search engines, which actually had nothing to do with their actual site.
Luckily, if they do become useless with the search engines, reciprocal links will still be handy for bringing traffic to your web site.
If anyone would like to exchange reciprocal links be sure not to employ any of the above tactics.
I also found this great article on the subject Fake Links: Nofollow is Just the Beginning
Also here is a FREE backlink checker
Browse Tips4pc for more Free Computer Help
Wednesday, 2 January 2008
Okay, so your computer has stopped working for whatever reason. What is the cause? is it the hard drive, the processor, are adware, or the problem? Maybe a Trojan, a virus? Has a chip on the RAM blown or the CPU overloaded?Should you hire a computer repair service, or should you buy yourself a new computer?It can be a very difficult decision, one you will base upon your finances and the age of your computer.If your computer is more than a few years old it may not be cost effective to repair it. For example, if the motherboard blows then unless you can find one of a similar age on ebay you will have to replace the processor, heat sink and memory as well because your originals are not likely to work in your new motherboard.The cost factor should also be taken into account when thinking about computer repair. Buying a new computer could cost you up to ten times more than repairing your existing computer.There is also the environmental impact of buying a new computer – what do you do with the old one? Do you throw it out to go rot in a landfill and pollute the environment or do you pay to have it properly disposed of? Or do you do what so many of us do and shove it in the back of the attic or garage and forget about it until it becomes an antique.The final consideration is your technical skill. Whilst computers have become easier for the novice to use and work with, they are still technical concerns. Many of us have enough trouble programming the VCR let alone changing the processor in a computer.You need to also realise that a computer is, after all, a delicate piece of equipment and is still sensitive to dust and static – in fact you can seriously damage your computer if you do not take the appropriate precautions. I have many customers who have tried to fix their own computer and inadvertently blown their processor or memory because they failed to take the proper anti-static precautions.You should never touch the connectors or chips on any computer card. Ideally you should always store memory and computer cards in proper anti-static bags to avoid this damage. Again, I get people coming to me with some memory they bought out of a bucket at a computer fair or boot sale wondering why it doesn’t work.It really is worth taking the time to hire a professional computer repair service to fix your computer, not only can they probably do the job quicker than you could, but they will do it properly and without any risk of damaging your computer.Hiring a professional computer repair service will ensure your computer is fixed quickly, easily and efficiently – with the least cost to you. Not only that, but you can get advice from a professional about how to keep your computer running efficiently and free from viruses, adware and Trojans.Tony Roberts has worked extensively for the last 15 years for several Blue Chip companies providing technical support and training to on-site support staff, enabling them to support a variety of software/hardware platforms. He now focuses his efforts in assisting small businesses and home users more information can be found at "Computer Repair the easy way" Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Tony_Roberts